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100           MOEPHOLOGY AND.EVOLUTION
legs point downwards ; but those on the arms and fore-arras, which are of great length, converge towards the elbows. The arrangement of the hairs is well seen in
figs. 17 and 18.
There are two pectoral mammae, and the umbilicus is situated below the middle of the body.
Habits/'—The most reasonable account of the habits of the Gorilla is still the original account, published in 1817, by Savage and Wyrnan. After disproving several undoubted fables Savage says: " They are exceedingly ferocious, and always offensive in their habits, never running from Man, as does the Chimpanzee. They are objects of terror to the natives, and are never encountered by them except on the defensive. The few that have been captured were killed by elephant-hunters and native traders, as they came suddenly upon them while passing through the forests.
44 It is said that when the male is first seen he gives a terrific yell, that resounds far and wide through the forest, something like kh—ah ! kh—ah! prolonged and shrill. His enormous jaws are widely opened at each expiration, his under lip hangs down over the chin, and the hairy ridge and scalp are contracted upon the brow, presenting an aspect of indescribable ferocity. The females and young, at the first cry, quickly disappear."
The Gorilla approaches his enemy in a stooping, shuffling manner, but rises to his feet when about to attack. He uses his powerful arms and hands to disable or kill the hunter, or he may attempt to draw him towards his great teeth.
* Accounts of habits are contained in papers 429, 443, 445, 449, 458* 469, 483* 484, 487-